Table 1.

Cell-to-Cell Movement Capacity of Viral and Endogenous Proteins

ProbeMethodaMovement (%)ExtentbReferences
Viral movement proteins
  RCNMV MPMI70–80EFujiwara et al. (1993)
  BDMV MPMI80–90ENoueiry et al. (1994)
  TMV MPMI70–90EWaigmann et al. (1994); Kragler et al. (1998b);
   Kragler et al. (2000)
  CMV MPMI70–80EDing et al. (1995), Kragler et al. (1998b)
  GUS-TMV MPMI801 cellWaigmann and Zambryski (1995)
  35S::TMV MP:GFPBB621–3 cellsCrawford and Zambryski (2001)
  35S::CMV MP:GFPBB561–3 cellsItaya et al. (1998)
Endogenous transcription factors
  KN1MI70–88ELucas et al. (1995); Kragler et al. (1998b)
  KN1mutant M6MI101 cellLucas et al. (1995)
  GST-KN1MI70EKragler et al. (1998b)
  35S::KN1:GFPBB141–2 cellsKim et al. (2002)
  FLOMI70–80EMezitt and Lucas (1996)
  LFYMI70–80EL.A. Mezitt and W.J. Lucas, unpublished data
  ML1::LFYIn vivo100ESessions et al. (2000)
  GLOMI75EKragler et al. (1998b)
  DEFMI70–80EMezitt and Lucas (1996)
Phloem proteins
  PP2MI80–85EBalachandran et al. (1997)
  RPP13-1MI65EIshiwatari et al. (1998)
  CmPP16MI90EXoconostle-Cázares et al. (1999)
  CmPP16 + RNAMI70–80EXoconostle-Cázares et al. (1999)
  CmPP36MI0NMXoconostle-Cázares et al. (2000)
  ΔNCmPP36MI90EXoconostle-Cázares et al. (2000)
Heterologous proteins and fluorescent probes
  FITC-dextran (10 kD)MI101–2 cellsWolf et al. (1989); Noueiry et al. (1994)
  GUSMI0NMWaigmann and Zambryski (1995)
  GSTMI101–2 cellsKragler et al. (1998b)
  GFPMI (2 min)0NMOparka et al. (1999)
  GFPMI (24 hr)66EOparka et al. (1999)
  35S::GFPBB (>24 hr)0NMItaya et al. (1998)
  35S::GFP cBB (24 hr)34/211–2 cellsCrawford and Zambryski (2001)
  35S::GFP cBB (24 hr)100/88E/1–2 cellsOparka et al. (1999)
  35S::NLS:GFPBB (24 hr)171–2 cellsCrawford and Zambryski (2000)
  35S::ER:GFPBB (24 hr)0NMOparka et al. (1999)
  35S::GFP:GFP cBB (24 hr)30/21–2 cellsCrawford and Zambryski (2000)(2001)
  SUC2::GFPIn vivo100EImlau et al. (1999); Oparka et al. (1999)
  • a Fluorescently labeled probes introduced into target cell by microinjection (MI), biolistic bombardment (BB) or expression as a transgene (in vivo).

  • b Extent of radial movement by the probe from the target cell: E, extensive movement through five to 10 cells; NM, no movement.

  • c Immature and mature tobacco leaves, respectively, were used in these experiments.