Table 1.

Summary of Heteromorphism in Flowering Plant Sperm Cells Examined to Date

Pollen Type and FamilySpeciesMethodMorphologySample SizeReference
Tricellular pollen
        PoaceaeHordeum vulgaris3-DI5Mogensen and Rusche, 1985
Secale cereale3-DI4Mogensen and Rusche, 2000
Zea mays3-DSD1McConchie et al., 1987a
3-DSD1Rusche, 1988
3-DSD1Rusche and Mogensen, 1988
        CarifoliaceaeAbelia spathulataDAPIODSaito et al., 2002
        BrassicaceaeBrassica campestris3-DMD5McConchie et al., 1987b
Brassica oleracea3-DMD3McConchie et al., 1987b
        EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia dulcis3-DMD1Murgia and Wilms, 1988
        AsteraceaeGerbera jamesonii3-DMD1Provoost et al., 1988
        PlumbaginaceaeLimonium sinuatumDAPIODSaito et al., 2002
Plumbago auriculataDAPIODSaito et al., 2001
Plumbago zeylanica3-DMPD11Russell, 1984
        ChenopodiaceaeSpinacia oleracea3-DMD7Wilms, 1986
Bicellular pollen
        IridaceaeGladiolus gandavensisImAnSD6Shivanna et al., 1988
        BignoniaceaeCampsis grandifloraDAPIODSaito et al., 2002
Tecoma capensisDAPIODSaito et al., 2002
        EricaceaeRhododendron sppImAnSD7Shivanna et al., 1988
        FabaceaeErythrina crista-galliDAPIODSaito et al., 2000
Erythrina variegataDAPIODSaito et al., 2002
        SolanaceaeNicotiana tabacum3-DI9Yu et al., 1992
 (to 30 h after pollination)3-DI19Yu and Russell, 1994
 (near pollen tube discharge)ImAnSD25Tian et al., 2001
Petunia hybrida3-DI1Wagner and Mogensen, 1988
  • Methods are as follows: 3-D, serial ultrathin sectioning and three-dimensional analysis; DAPI, fluorochromatic localization on sections embedded in Technovitt; ImAn, image analysis of whole-cell profiles and/or nuclear fluorochromatic patterns. Morphology types are as follows: I, isomorphic; MD, mitochondrial cytoplasmic dimorphism; MPD, mitochondrial and plastid cytoplasmic dimorphism; OD, organelle dimorphism in which DNA nucleoids were visualized but could represent plastids, mitochondria, or both; SD, structural dimorphism (condition of cytoplasmic organellar DNA unknown). Sample size represents the number of male sperm pairs examined, unless unavailable (−).