Table 2.

Relative Metabolite Levels in Wild Type and Psy-1–Overexpressing Fruit at the Mature Green and Ripe Stages of Fruit Development and Ripening

MetaboliteWild-Type MG:Psy-1 MGWild-Type MG:Wild-Type RipeWild-Type Ripe:Psy-1 RipePsy-1 MG:Psy-1 Ripe
Organic acids
    Aconitic acid0.71 ± 0.05*0.98 ± 0.300.69 ± 0.071.10 ± 0.10
    Ascorbic acid1.32 ± 0.3030.70 ± 4.80***1.40 ± 0.3032.40 ± 2.40***
    Citramalic acid0.90 ± 0.033.40 ± 0.30**3.20 ± 0.40***11.80 ± 1.50**
    Citric acid0.62 ± 0.1**0.92 ± 0.021.40 ± 0.03***2.03 ± 0.24***
    Dehydroascorbic acid0.00 ND***2.00 ± 0.22*2.20 ± 0.10***∼10.00#***
    Fumaric acid0.60 ± 0.08*0.20 ± 0.04***1.10 ± 0.110.38 ± 0.02**
    Galactonic acid0.56 ± 0.031.00 ± 0.050.80 ± 0.04*1.50 ± 0.07***
    Galacturonic acid0.00 ND***1.80 ± 0.45*0.64 ± 0.04*∼10.00#***
    Glucaric acid0.28 ± 0.05**0.09 ± 0.04**0.98 ± 0.140.30 ± 0.04***
    Glycerate1.00 ± 0.200.30 ± 0.00***1.20 ± 0.100.20 ± 0.02***
    Glycolate0.82 ± 0.070.40 ± 0.07**0.92 ± 0.100.50 ± 0.04***
    Gluconic acid0.97 ± 0.051.90 ± 0.10**0.76 ± 0.07*1.50 ± 0.13**
    Lactic acid0.83 ± 0.102.20 ± 0.17**1.40 ± 0.08**3.60 ± 0.40***
    Malic acid0.80 ± 0.040.32 ± 0.01***1.04 ± 0.030.41 ± 0.01***
    Oxalic acid0.08 ± 0.01***0.03 ± 0.00***1.60 ± 0.401.40 ± 0.20
    2-Oxoglutaric acid0.00 ND***0.05 ± 0.02*2.60 ± 1.00∼10.00#***
    Quinic acid0.20 ± 0.01**0.40 ± 0.01*0.83 ± 0.082.10 ± 0.21***
    Succinic acid0.60 ± 0.03*0.24 ± 0.01**0.94 ± 0.060.40 ± 0.02***
    Tartaric acid0.82 ± 0.043.00 ± 0.15**1.10 ± 0.103.90 ± 0.40***
    Threonic acid1.10 ± 0.200.50 ± 0.10*0.70 ± 0.100.60 ± 0.10*
Amino acids
    Ala2.00 ± 0.40*2.02 ± 0.40*1.50 ± 0.20*1.40 ± 0.08*
    β-Ala0.92 ± 0.100.10 ± 0.02***4.70 ± 1.80***0.30 ± 0.03***
    4-Aminobutryic acid0.90 ± 0.030.10 ± 0.03***3.50 ± 1.40***0.30 ± 0.02***
    Asn7.50 ± 1.70*10.0 ± 1.20***2.60 ± 0.43*25.60 ± 5.00**
    Asp1.50 ± 0.302.80 ± 0.03**1.50 ± 0.10**2.60 ± 0.20***
    Cys0.00 ND***0.40 ± 0.201.80 ± 0.30*∼10.00#***
    Glu1.60 ± 0.20*4.60 ± 0.10***0.94 ± 0.012.60 ± 0.27***
    Gln1.30 ± 0.300.46 ± 0.16*3.00 ± 0.30*1.03 ± 0.40
    Gly1.00 ± 0.100.14 ± 0.02***4.10 ± 0.22***0.55 ± 0.03**
    5-Hydroytryptamine1.40 ± 0.401.33 ± 0.101.40 ± 0.111.30 ± 0.14
    Leu0.42 ± 0.01***0.20 ± 0.00***0.40 ± 0.02***1.00 ± 0.04
    Lys2.20 ± 0.50*8.10 ± 0.30***1.10 ± 0.024.00 ± 0.35***
    5-Oxo-proline1.20 ± 0.201.54 ± 0.08*1.00 ± 0.101.30 ± 0.30
    Ser0.70 ± 0.10*0.40 ± 0.08**3.10 ± 0.32***2.00 ± 0.20**
    Thr0.85 ± 0.110.80 ± 0.101.60 ± 0.08**1.30 ± 0.03*
    Val1.00 ± 0.150.11 ± 0.02**3.50 ± 0.02***0.40 ± 0.06**
Fatty acids
    Linoleic acid0.57 ± 0.03*0.11 ± 0.02***1.80 ± 0.15**0.40 ± 0.05***
    Oleic acid0.38 ± 0.15*0.09 ± 0.02*1.90 ± 0.20*0.43 ± 0.05***
    Palmitic acid0.42 ± 0.01*0.15 ± 0.01**2.00 ± 0.07***0.71 ± 0.02***
    Stearic acid0.23 ± 0.07*0.17 ± 0.02**1.25 ± 0.070.90 ± 0.05
Sugars
    Arabinose9.30 ± 1.90***9.30 ± 0.50***2.90 ± 0.30**2.90 ± 0.10**
    Deoxyxylulose-5-phosphatea1.20 ± 0.04
    Fructose0.60 ± 0.142.00 ± 0.20*0.70 ± 0.082.50 ± 0.30***
    Gentiobiose0.40 ± 0.07**2.80 ± 0.30**2.10 ± 0.30**15.2 ± 1.6***
    Glucose1.20 ± 0.041.83 ± 0.08**0.86 ± 0.04*1.30 ± 0.04***
    Maltose0.27 ± 0.007***0.82 ± 0.021.30 ± 0.174.00 ± 0.40**
    Melezitose0.15 ± 0.03**4.00 ± 0.05***0.70 ± 0.2018.7 ± 4.8*
    Rhamnose580.50 ± 35.0***1.40 ± 0.20*1.20 ± 0.180.01 ± 0.00***
    Ribose0.43 ± 0.04*1.50 ± 0.20*1.00 ± 0.063.70 ± 0.15***
    Sucrose0.50 ± 0.02***0.65 ± 0.01**0.45 ± 0.05***0.54 ± 0.03***
    Xylose0.70 ± 0.04**1.51 ± 0.22*1.42 ± 0.203.70 ± 0.20***
Polyols
    Erythritol0.80 ± 0.070.54 ± 0.02*1.80 ± 0.05***1.20 ± 0.06
    Glycerol0.60 ± 0.200.20 ± 0.02**1.50 ± 0.13**0.40 ± 0.05**
    Inositol0.31 ± 0.10**0.30 ± 0.03**0.80 ± 0.070.80 ± 0.03
    Mannitol1.70 ± 0.40*3.01 ± 0.12**2.54 ± 0.40**4.50 ± 0.60***
    Phosphates
    Fructose-6-phosphate0.49 ± 0.1*0.21 ± 0.02***1.50 ± 0.13*0.30 ± 0.03**
    Glucose-6-phosphate0.05 ± 0.005***0.02 ± 0.00***1.40 ± 0.200.57 ± 0.06**
    Glycerol-3-phosphate0.93 ± 0.100.30 ± 0.06*1.60 ± 0.10**0.46 ± 0.07***
    Insitol-6-phosphate0.40 ± 0.02*0.40 ± 0.05**1.40 ± 0.07*1.40 ± 0.07***
    Phosphate1.10 ± 0.090.70 ± 0.05*1.10 ± 0.050.80 ± 0.03*
    Sorbitol-6-phosphate0.34 ± 0.02***0.23 ± 0.01***0.82 ± 0.030.84 ± 0.02*
    Sedoheptulose phosphate49.80 ± 2.50***245.00 ± 39.00**16.10 ± 2.10***7.80 ± 1.20***
    N-containing compounds
    Putrescine0.94 ± 0.11.10 ± 0.151.60 ± 0.13*0.50 ± 0.07**
Phenylpropanoids/flavonoids
    3-Caffeoylquinic0.40 ± 0.04***0.33 ± 0.02**0.70 ± 0.06*0.60 ± 0.05***
    Chlorogenic acid0.75 ± 0.040.29 ± 0.18**0.82 ± 0.030.51 ± 0.02***
    Naringenin-chalcone0.23 ± 0.04**0.48 ± 0.03**0.25 ± 0.02**6.40 ± 0.30***
    Quercetin derivatives1.25 ± 0.130.35 ± 0.08**0.49 ± 0.03*1.32 ± 0.10*
Terpenoids
    Amyrin1.14 ± 0.101.00 ± 0.011.14 ± 0.071.00 ± 0.01
    Campesterol0.96 ± 0.230.62 ± 0.901.06 ± 0.201.60 ± 0.20
    α-Carotene∼10.00#***∼10.00#***0.70 ± 0.101.60 ± 0.20
    β-Carotene26.20 ± 2.80***33.90 ± 1.20***1.40 ± 0.051.81 ± 0.20***
    δ-Carotene∼10.00#***∼10.00#***0.70 ± 0.101.60 ± 0.20
    γ-Carotene∼10.00#***∼10.00#***0.70 ± 0.031.60 ± 0.40
    ζ-carotene∼10.00#***∼10.00#***1.40 ± 0.101.20 ± 0.13
    Cycloartenol0.97 ± 0.261.20 ± 0.601.01 ± 0.051.10 ± 0.06
    FPPa0.78 ± 0.09
    GGPPa0.10 ± 0.004**
    GPPa0.72 ± 0.2
    Lutein2.40 ± 0.20*1.10 ± 0.201.24 ± 0.100.55 ± 0.03**
    Lycopene∼10.00#***∼10.00#***1.01 ± 0.0638.10 ± 2.20***
    Neoxanthin1.20 ± 0.080.20 ± 0.01***1.50 ± 0.100.20 ± 0.01**
    Phytoene∼10.00#***∼10.00#***2.30 ± 0.10**1.80 ± 0.20**
    Phytofluene∼10.00#***∼10.00#***1.80 ± 0.10*1.80 ± 0.20*
    Phytyl-PPa0.24 ± 0.025*
    Sitosterol1.09 ± 0.111.60 ± 0.310.70 ± 0.030.70 ± 0.14
    Stigmasterol0.87 ± 0.043.12 ± 0.50**0.99 ± 0.062.90 ± 0.43**
    α-Tocopherol2.40 ± 0.3**2.80 ± 0.60*1.30 ± 0.201.30 ± 0.20
    γ-Tocopherol∼10.00#***∼10.00#***2.40 ± 1.305.70 ± 2.50*
    Ubiquinone0.12 ± 0.02**2.56 ± 0.50*1.40 ± 0.3030.0 ± 3.00**
    Violaxanthin1.30 ± 0.100.40 ± 0.03**1.30 ± 0.040.35 ± 0.02**
    Zeaxanthin1.30 ± 0.400.50 ± 0.05*2.20 ± 0.900.90 ± 0.40
  • The Psy-1 variety PS-1C26R2 (T8) was used. Data have been normalized to sample weight and expressed relative to the wild type either at the mature green (37 d after anthesis) or ripe stage (10 d after breaker). In the case of column 5, data are expressed relative to the Psy-1 mature green samples. Values are represented as means ± se, where n = 6. P values are shown as <0.0001, 0.001, and 0.05 by ***, **, and *, respectively. ∼10.00# is at arbitrary increase due to the absence of one of a metabolite in one of the samples to be compared, while – indicates not determined. Terms in bold indicate a statistically significant increase. ND, not detected in one of the pairwise ratios; MG, mature green.

  • a Levels determined from radiolabeling experiments.