Table 1.

Types of Technologies Needed for the Future

TechnologyReferences
Gene replacement technology (as in yeast or mice, for example)Hardy et al. (2010)
Artificial chromosomes and respective transformation technologyChan et al. (2010); Gibson et al. (2008, 2010)
Tissue-representative cell lines as available for animal or human researchOhashi-Ito and Fukuda (2010)
Challenges of cyberinfrastructure and data handlingBarga et al. (2011)
Reverse genetics tools that can be efficiently applied to plants beyond models
Plant phenomics: high throughput that mimic real world, not pot, limited automatic greenhouses)Plant accelerators, www.plantaccelerator.org.au; Biosphere 2, www.b2science.org
Tools for genomic engineeringBogdanove and Voytas (2011)
Four-dimensional imaging at the super-resolution level
Multimodal imaging
Crystal structure of all (plant membrane) proteins
Biochemical and/or structural function of all proteins
Diagnostics of health; diagnostics for pathogens
Methods to manipulate gene and protein function with high resolution in space and time and in combination (cellular and subcellular scales)
High-throughput methods for identifying ligands and substrates
Methods for systematic determination of the localization of all proteins
Biosensors for plant hormones and signaling intermediates
Biosensors for all key metabolites
Tools to take cell-level biology and physiology to the environment
Methods to image cell wall organization and molecular rearrangements
Precise small molecule inhibitors for all proteins
Tools for rapid increases or decreases in protein activity/amount
Field-scale imaging to measure plant performance over time from individuals in a populationAsner and Martin (2011)
Remote (satellite or airplane) sensing of photosynthetic efficiency, nutritional status, and water statusBramley et al. (2009)
Methods for imaging deep in tissues or in the soil