Table 2. Selectable Markers in Use for Chlamydomonas Transformation
Marker NameSelection TypeMarker OriginOrganelleReference
NIT1aAuxotrophy rescue (nitrate use)ChlamydomonasNucleus(Kindle et al., 1989)
ARG4aAuxotrophy rescue (Arg)Budding yeastNucleus(Rochaix et al., 1984)
ARG7aAuxotrophy rescue (Arg)ChlamydomonasNucleus(Debuchy et al., 1989)
ARG9aAuxotrophy rescue (Arg)ChlamydomonasNucleus(Remacle et al., 2009)
ARG9aAuxotrophy rescue (Arg)ArabidopsisChloroplast(Remacle et al., 2009)
NIC7aAuxotrophy rescue (nicotinamide)ChlamydomonasNucleus(Ferris, 1995)
THI10aAuxotrophy rescue (thiamine)ChlamydomonasNucleus(Ferris, 1995)
OEE1a,bAuxotrophy rescue (acetate requiring)ChlamydomonasNucleus(Mayfield and Kindle, 1990)
psbAa,bHerbicide resistance (DCMU)ChlamydomonasNucleus(Erickson et al., 1984)
PDS1bHerbicide resistance (norflurazon)ChlamydomonasNucleus(Brueggeman et al., 2014)
PPObHerbicide resistance (oxyfluorfen)ChlamydomonasNucleus(Brueggeman et al., 2014)
GATHerbicide resistance (glyphosate)Agrobacterium sppNucleus(Brueggeman et al., 2014)
SULHerbicide resistance (sulfadiazine)E. coliNucleus(Tabatabaei et al., 2019)
CRY1-1cDrug resistance (emetine)ChlamydomonasNucleus(Nelson et al., 1994)
aphVIIIAntibiotic resistance (paromomycin)Streptomyces rimosusNucleus(Sizova et al., 2001)
aphA-6Antibiotic resistance (kanamycin)AcetinobacterChloroplast(Bateman and Purton, 2000)
aadAAntibiotic resistance (spectinomycin)E. coliNucleus, chloroplast(Goldschmidt-Clermont, 1991)
blecAntibiotic resistance (bleomycin, zeocin)Streptoalloteichus hindustanusNucleus(Stevens et al., 1996)
aph7′′Antibiotic resistance (hygromycin)Streptoalloteichus hindustanusNucleus(Berthold et al., 2002)
NPTIIAntibiotic resistance (kanamycin)E. coli Tn5 transposonNucleus(Barahimipour et al., 2016)
er, spr, sr (16S, 23S cp rRNA)dAntibiotic resistance (spectinomycin, erythromycin)ChlamydomonasChloroplast(Newman et al., 1990)
cob-nd4-nd5Auxotrophy rescue (respiration)ChlamydomonasMitochondrion(Remacle et al., 2006)
cobmud2Drug resistance (myxothiazol)ChlamydomonasMitochondrion(Remacle et al., 2006)
  • a Require the mutation to be present in the relevant background for auxotrophy rescue.

  • b Herbicide resistance is conferred by a point mutation in the presumed target of the herbicide, but the mutants have no phenotype on their own.

  • c Can potentially damage DNA.

  • d Antibiotics target the plastid ribosomes, and the resistance-conferring mutations are in the plastid 16S or 23S rRNAs.