Table 1. Advances in Genome Editing
TechniqueConsequencesReferences
Transient expression of Cas9 and guide RNANonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) repair leads to indels and frame shifts(Collonnier et al., 2017)
Transient expression of Cas9 and guide RNAs targeting multiple genomic sitesNHEJ repair leads to indels and frame shifts(Lopez-Obando et al., 2016; Mallett et al., 2019)
Transient expression of Cas9 and guide RNA together with a homology plasmidHDR enables the insertion of sequences encoding fluorescent proteins and small cassette containing stop codons in all possible frames to ensure that the stop codon is close to the protospacer site(Mallett et al., 2019)
Transient expression of Cas9 and guide RNA together with homology oligosHDR enables the insertion of stop codons from the oligos to ensure that the stop codon is close to the protospacer site(Yi and Goshima, 2019)
Transient expression of LbCas12A and multiple CRISPR RNAsEfficient method to multiplex target sites use the CRISPR RNAs; NHEJ results in diverse deletions(Pu et al., 2019)
Transient expression of SpCas9-NG and guide RNAMakes it possible to perform base editing by relaxing the stringency of the Protospacer Adjacent Motif sequence requirement(Veillet et al., 2020)