Table 2. Key Features of P. patens and Online Resources
LifestyleHaploid, gametophyte-dominant
Grows axenically in simple mineral medium
Self-fertile (predominantly selfing)
Genetics and genomicsCan be crossed for genetic studies
Gene targeting by homologous recombination
Genome editing by CRISPR/Cas9
Transfection of protoplasts and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation
Complete genomes, relatively small nuclear genome (500 Mbp, 27 chromosomes)
Transcriptome (expression profiling) data
Many mutants published
Genomes and primary annotationNuclear genome assembly V3 for browsing at CoGe (including gene models v3.3, single nucleotide polymorphisms, RNA-seq expression evidence, TE and noncoding RNA annotation, microarray probes, DNA methylation, and histone modification)
Nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes at CoGe
Nuclear genome and gene models at Phytozome (including gene family assignment and RNA-seq expression evidence)!info?alias=Org_Ppatens
P. patens gene model lookup database (for converting between different annotation versions)
Online toolsP. patens transcription factors and transcriptional regulators in TAPscan
P. patens expression atlas PEATmoss (including microarray and RNA-seq dataset)
Older expression atlas tools include Genevestigator ( and an eFP browser (
P. patens in the PLAZA comparative genomics environment
P. patens in ENSEMBL plants
Protocols and stocksCold Spring Harbor protocols on cultivation of P. patens
Protonema cultivation at Bio-protocol
PHYSCObase protocols
International Moss Stock Center
Protocols on the Bezanilla Laboratory website